The transit time of foods is more related to macronutritional profile than it is the solid or liquid nature of the food. However, on average liquid food does pass through the digestive system quicker than solid food … by a few seconds! Yes those seconds it takes you to chew your food.
The tiny bit of digestion that liquid foods may be missing out on is saliva, but the only enzyme in salvia is salivary amylase which breaks down starch. But, the actual action of salivary amylase on solid food is minimal as it only relates to starches - not proteins or fats. Starch is impacted more by this enzyme’s sister: pancreatic amylase which is secreted after the food has been turned into a liquid called chyme in the stomach.
The speed chyme leaves the stomach is the same rate no matter whether the food was solid or liquid when it went in the mouth (it’s more affected by the relative concentration of carbohydrate, electrolye content and temperature of the food - but that’s well off-topic).
Absorption happens (mostly) in the intestines, so you can see nothing is affected.