The Role of Vitamin K2 in the Human Diet

I have written a new Blog post on Vitamin K2

Read it here

Any points of discussion, post below.


Very nice blog post.

To anyone interested in reading more about MK-4 vs MK-7, here is a nice starting point with lots of links to studies:

Anyone eating Huel 100% of the time should look into this issue a bit more and perhaps supplement with some Vitamin K2 in the form of MK-4 to hit the US RDI instead of the weaker EU NRV and possibly gain some of the proposed benefits of Vitamin K2 in form of MK-4.

Thank you for the feedback!

Solid article on K2, good to see that you’re using the trans form of MK-7, as well, and not the cis form. That said, the levels of K2 in Huel, as well as vitamin D, are very low, so I’m not sure it makes any difference at these levels. But for sure it can’t hurt to include some K2 in Huel. Keep in mind, that for the serious production and activation of bone proteins like Matrix Gla Protein, osteocalcin and so on, you need quite high levels of vitamin A (in retinol or for vegans, the retinyl palmitate form), D3 and K2. Huel’s current ingredients doesn’t come close, but as I was saying, it doesn’t hurt to throw in some K2 there.

Also, one important health concern your blog post didn’t touch on, is that K2 is important for preventing and reversing soft-tissue calcification (if left unchecked, it’ll lead to cardiovascular disease like atherosclerosis and stroke). But again, high levels of A/D3/K2 are required for that, as opposed to the trace amounts found in Huel.

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Hi @EliasAlucard - thanks for your comments.

The level of K2 is not low at all - do remember that the level of K1 already meets nutrient requirements, so the K2 is there purely for the addtional benefits K2 provides. The addtional K2 meets these requirements

The level of vitamin D in Huel is high - 300%. The Nutrient Reference Value (NRV) of vitamin D is met by D2 alone and the rest is a considerable amount of D3 for the addtional benefits which are well documented. The additional D3 is way over the amounts required for benefits, but this covers those individuals who don’t get much sun exposure.

The form of vitamin A in Huel is retinol acetate as the palmitate form has some negativity due to sustainability. Although the palmitate form was sustainably sourced, as the acetate form is equally bioavailable it makes sense to use it.

Do also bear in mind that Huel is based on a per 2,000 calorie intake; if your looking at a 100g serving, then yes the K2 level wouldn’t be that high if just one serving per day were consumed.

I’m not saying Huel doesn’t meet the RDI levels of A and D @ 2000 kcal. I’m saying the RDI levels are laughable and totally useless for bone health for A and D, both of which are required at very high levels, for decalcification, and the K2 in Huel at 2000 kcal, which is 25 μg, is also useless as far as calcification issues are concerned. I take several milligrams of A/D3/K2, just so you understand, and even at these levels, it’s not it’s enough. Kate Rheaume-Bleue, author of a book on K2, has this to say:

"The most recent clinical trials use 180 mcg per day for bone health and 360 mcg daily for arterial calcifications."

Even 360 μg of MK-7 is far too low for decalcification if you ask me. But yeah, I understand that the purpose of Huel isn’t megadosing of the fat soluble vitamins, which is what’s required for soft-tissue decalcification. It’s good that Huel at least includes K2, even at low doses and only MK-7 (MK-4 is also important), it’s good that Huel includes K2, can’t hurt, even though 25 μg won’t have a noticeable effect for bone health. For the production and “carboxylation” (i.e., activation) of bone proteins like Matrix Gla Protein, osteocalcin and the rest of the bone proteins, you need megadosing of A/D3/K2.

I agree the ‘RDI’ levels are too low for D: I was illustrating that we go well over and there is more than sufficient for bone health. With vitamin A, the NRV has a significant buffer-margin already.

The research on K2 is in its infancy. What a lot of it overlooks, are intakes of K1; with more K1, there is less ‘need’ for K2 for blood-related functions.