April 12, 2016, 3:22am
Why is the amount of copper in Huel at 1.8 times the reference intake?
This paper seems to suggest that the plasma ratio copper/zinc may be important.
Additionally there seems to be some interaction between phytic acid and absorption in rats.
DY Lee, J Schroeder and DT Gordon,
The Journal of nutrition, Jun 1988
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytic acid on copper (Cu) bioavailability. Male weanling rats were fed a Cu-deficient diet (less than 1.0 micrograms/g) for 4 wk and then were divided into 12 groups (n = 8) in a factorial design. Cu-deficient rats were then fed diets containing 1.4, 3.0, 5.2 or 10.5 micrograms Cu/g (CuCO3) and 0, 0.4 or 0.8% phytic acid as sodium phytate at each Cu level. All diets contained 30 micrograms Zn/g. After 3 d of Cu repletion, liver copper (LCu), liver Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (LSOD) activity, serum Cu (SCu) and serum ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations were determined. These parameters were used as indexes of Cu bioavailability. The addition of phytic acid to diets fed to Cu-deficient rats significantly enhanced Cu bioavailability compared to that of rats fed diets without phytic acid. Coefficients of determination (r2) were calculated for each response parameter versus dietary Cu concentration. The r2-values for pooled LCu and LSOD values were 0.31 and 0.30, respectively, between 1.4 and 5.2 micrograms Cu/g. At low dietary Cu concentrations, liver Cu parameters (i.e., LCu and LSOD) were more responsive indexes of Cu status than SCu and CP. Each index of Cu status was found to correlate with the other indexes of Cu nutriture. Phytic acid is postulated to enhance Cu utilization by its ability to bind other dietary components, such as Zn, that compete with Cu at the site of intestinal absorption.
VP Kotsaki-Kovatsi, L Kovatsi, G Koehler-Samouilidou, M Karavanis and E Bacoyanni,
Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS), Apr 2001
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the administration of phytic acid on copper (Cu) concentrations in several different rat tissues. The animals used were divided into three groups: Group A (received a diet supplemented with 2% phytic acid), group B (received a diet supplemented with 10% phytic acid) and group C (control). At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the concentration of copper was determined in the different tissues. Phytic acid significantly increased Cu concentration in the duodenum of the animals of both groups as well as in the lungs and blood of the animals of group A. The copper concentration was also increased in the uterus and bone of the animals of group B. On the other hand, the stomach copper concentration of the animals of both groups, the heart and lung copper concentrations of the animals of group B as well as the jejunum, colon and hair copper concentrations of the animals of group A were significantly decreased. Copper excretion through feces was significantly decreased in the animals of both groups, while the excretion through urine was not significantly affected by the administration of phytic acid. In conclusion, the administration of phytic acid can produce translocation and/or elimination of copper in various tissues of rats.
All of the Zinc and Copper in Huel is naturally occurring in the Huel ingredients. Whilst they’re higher than the daily amounts, and James can comment on that better than me, these are for a standard person on 2000 calories, as well as being well below the maximum dosage amounts, so won’t have any negative impact on you:
April 12, 2016, 9:14am
All of the Zinc and Copper in Huel is naturally occurring in the Huel ingredients.
That’s not true from the ingredient list which lists Copper (II) Citrate.
My post is more about the optimal amount rather than an amount which is “okay”.
@Power - I wouldn’t focus too much on one study: that one is condition specific. If one were to look, I’m sure we could find possible interactions and ratios of many of the nutrients.
There is addtional copper in Huel - this has been added to account for other nutrient interactions. Don’t worry though, the upper safe limit is 11mg per day
April 12, 2016, 5:37pm
What are the interactions?